After a lapse of half a century, Islamic religious services are to be held once more in the former Byzantine cathedral of St Sophia in Istanbul. Murad Sezer / … The move came hours after Turkey's highest court issued a landmark ruling that unanimously annulled the 1934 cabinet decision to renovate the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul into a museum. In subsequent centuries it became a mosque, a museum, and a mosque again. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan made the controversial decision in 2020 to convert the building back into a mosque. Istanbul's Hagia Sophia has been a monument to selective readings of history. It is located in heart of old Istanbul, next to the Blue Mosque in the Sultan Ahmet Square (Sultanahmet Meydani) Istanbul. Hagia Sophia was built as an Orthodox Christian cathedral and stood as … Hagia Sophia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Istanbul, Turkey. Bringing the structure in line with the Islamic tradition called for a series of other modifications, not all of which were undertaken during the reign of Mehmed II. Immediately after that, Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan said he signed a decree on turning the cathedral into a mosque and starting Muslim worship services there. Built 1,500 years ago as an Orthodox Christian cathedral, Hagia Sophia was … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It went through another religious conversion after the conquest of Constantinople by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1453, when it was designated a mosque. Hagia Sophia, Turkish Ayasofya, Latin Sancta Sophia, also called Church of the Holy Wisdom or Church of the Divine Wisdom, an important Byzantine structure in Istanbul and one of the world’s great monuments. Unusual for the period in which it was built, the names of the building’s architects—Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus—are well known, as is their familiarity with mechanics and mathematics. Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία in Greek), the Church of Holy Wisdom, known variously as Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, is an ancient cathedral of the Church of Constantinople located in modern-day Istanbul, Turkey. You may also like. Image of constantinople, exterior, cathedral - 119351242 It was also an important site of Muslim worship after Sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453 and designated the structure a mosque. Even now it’s known by several different monikers: Ayasofya in Turkish, Sancta Sophia in Latin, and Holy Wisdom or Divine Wisdom in English (alternate English translations of the Greek words Hagia Sophia). Pope ‘deeply pained’ over Turkey’s move on Hagia Sophia In a very brief, improvised remark, Francis, speaking from his studio window overlooking St. … The structure now standing is essentially the 6th-century edifice, although an earthquake caused a partial collapse of the dome in 558 (restored 562) and there were two further partial collapses, after which it was rebuilt to a smaller scale and the whole church reinforced from the outside. Prior to that, the site had been home to a pagan temple. Your Turkey Istanbul St Sophia Cathedral stock images are ready. ", This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 13:45. Much of the Hagia Sophia’s edifice evident today was completed in the 6th century (primarily from 532–537), during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. Like. The church was burned again in the Nika insurrection of January 532, a circumstance that gave Justinian I an opportunity to envision a splendid replacement. Kemal Atatürk secularized the building, and in 1935 it was made into a museum. The Hagia Sophia was one of the Roman Empire's first Christian cathedrals, after St. John Lateran in Rome, and is among the best-known Byzantine … It was built in 537 as the Greek Orthodox patriarchal cathedral, later becoming a Roman Catholic cathedral, then a Sunni mosque, then a museum. According to the Chronicon Paschale, the church was consecrated on 15 February 360, during the reign of the emperor Constantius II (r. 337–361), by the Arian bishop Eudoxius of Antioch, it was built next to the area where the Great Palace was being developed. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. As Turkey’s most popular tourist destination, the Hagia Sophia remained open to visitors. Dome, showing pendentive construction; Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 6th century. Istanbul, Turkey - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock View of St. Sophia Cathedral (Mosque, Hagia Sofia) in January on a cloudy day. It was built as a Christian church in the 6th century ce (532–537) under the direction of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. The original church to occupy the site (called the Megale Ekklesia) was commissioned by Emperor Constantine I in 325, razed during a riot in 404, later rebuilt, and destroyed once again in 532 before Justinian commissioned the building that exists today. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hagia-Sophia, History Learning Site - The Balfour Declaration of 1917, The Met - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey, LiveScience - Hagia Sophia: Facts, History and Architecture, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism - Hagia Sophia Museum, Hagia Sophia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Hagia Sophia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. There are three aisles separated by columns with galleries above and great marble piers rising up to support the dome. For the past eighty years Hagia Sophia has been a museum. The structure originally erected on the site of the Hagia Sophia was a Christian cathedral called the Megale Ekklesia, which was commissioned by the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I. The Hagia Sophia rising along the shore of the Bosporus, Istanbul. From the date of its construction in 537 AD, and until 1453, it. It was damaged in 404 by a fire that erupted during a riot following the second banishment of St. John Chrysostom, then patriarch of Constantinople. Hagia Sophia, Turkish Ayasofya, Latin Sancta Sophia, also called Church of the Holy Wisdom or Church of the Divine Wisdom, an important Byzantine structure in Istanbul and one of the world’s great monuments. For more than a millennium it was the Cathedral of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Questions and answers about the Hagia Sophia. The pope, who heads the Roman Catholic church, is adding his voice to strong objections a day earlier by the head of the Geneva-based World Council of Churches. It was founded in 537 under the Emperor Justinian. The Turkish secular government in 1934 decided to make it a museum. Turkey is once again on its way to becoming a radical Islamist state. In 1935, Hagia Sophia acquired the status of museum. The Turkish secular government in 1934 decided to make it a museum. The ancient cathedral of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul – the former seat of eastern Christianity – could now be dedicated to use as a mosque after Turkey’s high court on Friday ruled its conversion into a museum in 1934 was unlawful. Art historians consider the building’s beautiful mosaics to be the main source of knowledge about the state of mosaic art in the time shortly after the end of the Iconoclastic Controversy in the 8th and 9th centuries. Floor plan of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. The nice door, Hagia Sophia Museum, "The Emperor Door." Hagia Sophia is not, in fact, the only name that the structure has gone by. Nearly half of the capital, Constantinople, lay in smoldering ruins, including the most important cathedral, St. Sophia – Church of the Holy Wisdom. For nearly a thousand years, until the cathedral of Seville supplanted it in 1520, Hagia Sophia was the world’s largest Christian church. Travel woman with turkish tea looking view of hagia sophia in istanbul, turkey… Collect. Save. The walls above the galleries and the base of the dome are pierced by windows, which in the glare of daylight obscure the supports and give the impression that the canopy floats on air. St. Sophia Cathedral in Istanbul, Turkey, is also a popular tourist destination, but Glee, the cat's mascot, has been loved for a long time with more than 110,000 social media followers. But Emperor Justinian had a plan to restore the empire to its greatness. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 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"Museum or Mosque? Report on Work Carried out in 1964", "Documentary Evidence on the Apse Mosaics of St. Sophia", "Hagia Sophia, Constantinople: Religious images and their functional context after iconoclasm", "Interpreting the Mosaics of S. Sophia at Istanbul", "Images of the Mother: When the Virgin Mary Became "Meter Theou, "Some Remarks on the Apse Mosaic of St. Sophia", "The Representation of Virgin and Child on a "Thokos" on Seals of the Constantinopolitan Patriarchs (pl. Sultan Mehmed II designated the previously Christian church a mosque shortly after he conquered the city in 1453. The name Hagia Sophia didn’t come about until around 430 CE. In 1934 Turkish Pres. Since then, mosaics were added throughout the Byzantine period, structural modifications were made in both the Byzantine and Ottoman periods, and features important to the Islamic architectural tradition were constructed during Ottoman ownership of the structure. St. Sophia was itself the second church of that name, built after the first one was destroyed by another mob in 404. Muslims attend Friday prayers outside Hagia Sophia Grand Mosque in Istanbul July 24. 54-61)", "The Medieval Russian Account of the Fourth Crusade – A New Annotated Translation", Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, "History of Hagia Sophia - the Church of Holy Wisdom", "A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia", 360 Degree Virtual Tour of Hagia Sophia Mosque Museum, Gigapixel of Hagia Sophia Dome ( 214 Billion Pixel ), Hagia Sophia Museum, Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture & Tourism, The Most Visited Museums of Turkey: Hagia Sophia Museum, Governorship of Istanbul, Hagia Sophia Mosque, Istanbul Directorate of Culture & Tourism, Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar Literature Museum Library, Holy Martyrs Menodora, Metrodora, and Nymphodora, Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), Kefeli (Monastery of Manuel / St. Nicholas), Koca Mustafa Pasha (St. Andrew in Krisei), Little Haghia Sophia (SS. The Hagia Sophia combines a longitudinal basilica and a centralized building in a wholly original manner, with a huge 32-metre (105-foot) main dome supported on pendentives and two semidomes, one on either side of the longitudinal axis. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. It was built as a Christian church in the 6th century ce (532–537) under the direction of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. Photo about St. Sophia Cathedral , Istanbul, Turkey on a bright day. The picture above shows the actual view of ST.SOPHIA CHURCH MUSEUM (Ayasofya Muzesi) in Istanbul today. Night view of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II had it repurposed as a mosque, with the addition of a wooden minaret (on the exterior, a tower used for the summons to prayer), a great chandelier, a mihrab (niche indicating the direction of Mecca), and a minbar (pulpit). The restored building was rededicated in 415 by Theodosius II. Hagia Sophia or Saint Sophia may also refer to: The Greek for Holy Wisdom, a concept in Christian theology It was looted in 1204 by the Venetians and the Crusaders on the Fourth Crusade. now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. It was restored again in the mid-14th century. Either he or his son Bayezid II erected the red minaret that stands on the southeast corner of the structure. Pres. Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced the decision after a court annulled the site's museum status. Mosaic from Hagia Sophia, 9th century. The Hagia Sophia was built in the remarkably short time of about six years, being completed in 537 ce. 5. The Virgin Mary and Child between Justinian I (left), holding a model of Hagia Sophia, and Constantine (right), holding a model of the city of Constantinople. It was converted into a museum a year later, a decision which remains controversial. Updates? St Sophia Cathedral was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List among theother monuments of Istanbul’s historic center in … Omissions? Saint Sophia should be returned to Christians,” the parliamentarian said. In a very brief, improvised remark, Pope Francis, speaking from his studio window overlooking St. Peter's Square, said he is “deeply pained” over the decision by Turkey to change the status of Hagia Sophia, which had originally been built as a Christian cathedral, from that of a museum in Istanbul to a mosque. For a … The original church on the site of the Hagia Sophia is said to have been ordered to be built by Constantine I in 325 on the foundations of a pagan temple. In plan the building is almost square. Bayezid II erected the narrow white minaret on the northeast side of the mosque. Saint Sophia is the finest and most famous example of BYZANTINE architecture in the world. They will begin on July 24. Until 1453, when the Ottoman Turks took the city and renamed it Istanbul, Hagia Sophia served as a cathedral, the seat of the patriarch of Constantinople. His son, Constantius II, consecrated it in 360. σία, Megálē Ekklēsíā, 'Great Church'), because of its larger dimensions in comparison to the contemporary churches in the city. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The colossal Santa Sophia cathedral was turned into a mosque after the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453. It would remain so for many centuries, until being secularized in 1934 by the Turkish Republic’s first president. Hagia Sophia | "Hagia Sophia Cathedral" Turkey Islamic History It would remain a mosque until being converted into a museum in the 1930s. Pendentive construction ; Hagia Sophia acquired the status of museum convert the building, the!, offers, and a mosque the only name that the structure has gone by mosque, decision. 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